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Maxwell’s ID Demon Converts Info to Energy

first_imgInformation can be converted into energy – provided it is guided by intelligent design.  That’s what researchers demonstrated with an experimental setup of “Maxwell’s Demon,” a famous thought experiment about how to overcome the Second Law of Thermodynamics.    James Clerk Maxwell knew that the laws of thermodynamics did not allow the spontaneous separation of hot and cold gas molecules in a container.  He imagined, though, that an agent (he didn’t call it a demon) could sort the molecules by choosing which ones could pass through a barrier.  Later, it was proved that the Second Law would not be violated, because of the energy expended by the demon choosing the molecules (06/27/2002, 07/17/2002).    According to PhysOrg, Masaki Sano and a team at the University of Tokyo set up an experiment that shows energy can be extracted from information – the information of scientists acting as Maxwell’s Demon.  They controlled a particle subject to random Brownian motion to walk up a spiral staircase by using electric fields to prevent it jumping back down.  So by controlling its direction, but not pushing it, they allowed it to gain more potential energy.    The article explained, “The experiment did not violate the second law of thermodynamics because energy was consumed in the experiment by the apparatus used, and by the experimenters themselves, who did work in monitoring the particle and adjusting the voltage, but Sano said the experiment does demonstrate that information can be used as a medium for transferring energy.”    See also how life uses Maxwell’s demons at the molecular scale in cellular motors (02/10/2010) and in muscle (04/19/2010).Information into energy: what a concept.  You could teach a child this principle with a simple home experiment.  Get some jumping beans (or any toy that will spontaneously jump) and put them on a small staircase with side walls.  Some will jump and land higher up.  As they climb, block their fall back down.  The bean can eventually make it to the top, where it has increased its potential energy without the child applying any force to it.  Two children can race their jumping beans to the top to make it more fun.    To apply the lesson, ask them if the bean would ever make it to the top on its own (assuming it can only hop as high as one stair at a time, and there are many stairs).  With unguided reversible processes, the child will see that it is highly unlikely.  But by applying intelligent design (the goal of reaching the top), a mind can harness chance motions to perform work.  The Second Law ensures that entropy will increase in the whole system (bean + setup of experimental apparatus + body and brain of the guiding intelligence), but the object lesson will be a good illustration of the power of intelligent design over randomness.(Visited 52 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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President welcomes special guests to South Africa’s Sona

first_img13 February 2015As has become tradition, President Jacob Zuma invited several special guests to his State of the Nation Address (Sona), delivered on 12 February. The night is one of pomp and circumstance that signifies the opening of parliament for the year, and the start of government business after the annual holiday.“I would like you to join me in congratulating my special guest, our ace Olympic swimmer Chad Le Clos,” Zuma said, to much applause.“Chad received swimming’s highest honour in December after he was crowned the world’s best swimmer for 2014, by the International Swimming Federation, amongst many other outstanding achievements.”Earlier in 2014, Le Clos became the first man to be named Fina’s Swimming World Cup series winner for the third time, collecting 27 gold medals along the way. Le Clos is also the first swimmer to go unbeaten throughout a World Cup series and also the first swimmer to win all the butterfly events.Zuma also spoke of three special girls from Moletsane High School in Soweto, whom he was hosting. “They are Ofentse Mahasha, Hlengiwe Moletsane and Tiisetso Mashiloane. Ofentse and Hlengiwe attended the last G20 summit in Australia and performed exceptionally well, making us truly proud.”The three won a school essay competition on the importance of the G20 for both South Africa and Australia. They were chosen by the Australian government to attend the G20 Leaders’ Summit in Brisbane in November 2014.“One of these learners told me, ‘If you decide you want to be something, you must work hard and put your eyes on it.’ She wants to be the president of South Africa,” Zuma said.Another South African making the country proud was not in the house, but was remembered by the president: “Allow me also. to congratulate in absentia, another star performer who has brought glory to our country, Miss World, Miss Rolene Strauss.”Zuma’s fifth special guest at his Sona was another athlete. “I would also like to introduce another special guest, the country’s Sports Star of the Year and Banyana Banyana striker, Miss Portia Modise. Congratulations Portia,” he said.While most South Africans were only able to watch the event on television, they were not forgotten, with the president thanking all of those who took their time to contribute to Sona 2015 following his request for input from citizens about what they would like to hear from him.“In terms of the inputs, our people are concerned about, amongst others, crime, roads, access to education, youth internship schemes, water, electricity and support for small businesses. Contributions requiring feedback are being referred to government departments for action.”Turning to agriculture, “a catalyst for growth and food security”, Zuma spoke of the government’s work with the private sector to develop an Agricultural Policy Action Plan. In doing so, he also welcomed another of his special guests, the winner of the 2014 Agriculture Female Entrepreneur Award, Nokwanele Mzamo, from Kirkwood in the Eastern Cape.Previously known as the Female Farmer of the Year and initiated in 1999, the awards seek to encourage and increase the participation of women, youth and people with disabilities in agriculture. The major thrust of the programme is to underline the fact that women play a significant role in food security, job creation, economic growth and poverty alleviation.Mzamo scooped the award for the Top Entrepreneur in the Sector: Export Market, making her the overall winner. The 44-year-old and 58 other beneficiaries established the Luthando Farm, in the Sunday River valley, in 2003.The farm produces seasonal crops and citrus fruit that are exported to the Middle East, Europe, United Kingdom, Russia, Canada and China. It produces about 220 579 cartons of export citrus.Zuma’s final special guest was Mapule Phokompe from Mahikeng in North West, the winner of the Women in Water conservation awards. “At our tea yesterday, Ms Phokompe [explained to me] why Mafikeng is now called Mahikeng. I now know,” he said.The president had met his special guests for a high tea in the afternoon of 11 February, before the Sona. Also at the tea was the chairperson of Brand South Africa, Chichi Maponya.In introducing Phokompe, he urged all residents of South Africa to conserve water. “Every drop counts. The country loses R7-billion a year to water losses.”The Department of Water and Sanitation encouraged the involvement of women’s organisations from the rural areas to devise practical ways of conserving water and producing food. The Mosadi Tshwene project, led by Phokompe, from the water- scarce Disaneng Village in Mahikeng, topped the Water Conservation Category in the 2014 Women in Water Awards competition by practising the best water conservation method in the production of vegetables.“We believe the opening of parliament and the State of the Nation Address is an event for all South Africans because parliament is an institution of the people and we therefore want people to visit parliament to feel part of it,” Zuma said before his address.“That’s why every year we invite special guests of the president on the strength of the good work that they do in the development and promotion of our country and the sacrifices each has made for South Africa.”The guests were chosen for representing the country in various sectors on the international stage. “We also invite the families of late struggle heroes and heroines to see the good work and contribution of their family members.”In a break from tradition, for the first time a female praise singer introduced the Sona, Kgato Welminah Masemola of Ga-Marishane village in Limpopo. The imbongi is a community leader and sews traditional Sepedi dresses and does traditional bead work.SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

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13 days agoBurnley defender Kevin Long admits lack of action frustrating

first_imgBurnley defender Kevin Long admits lack of action frustratingby Paul Vegas13 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveBurnley defender Kevin Long admits his lack of action this season is frustrating.The Republic of Ireland defender’s only appearance for the Clarets this season came in the EFL Cup exit at home to Sunderland in August. “It can be frustrating,” he told the Irish media.“If other lads for Burnley or Ireland are playing well, there’s not much I can do.“I spoke to Mick briefly about it in the past. He wants me playing games, first and foremost, but is aware of the position I’m in at Burnley.“He’s stuck by me and hopefully I can repay him for that.“If I get a chance on Saturday, I’ll be ready to take it with both hands. This match, and the trip to Switzerland on Tuesday, are huge games. They’re the type of you want to be involved in.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

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5 days agoLeicester keeper Schmeichel says being late bloomer is career motivation

first_imgLeicester keeper Schmeichel says being late bloomer is career motivationby Paul Vegas5 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveLeicester City goalkeeper Kasper Schmeichel says being a late bloomer has helped his career motivation.The Dane made his international debut at 26, though is now regarded among the best keepers in the world. He reached a personal national team landmark last week against Switzerland. Schmeichel made super four saves in the 1-0 European Championships qualifying win.And the Foxes favourite admits his late career recognition is now working in his favour. At 32 years of age, Schmeichel insists he’s as ambitious and motivated as ever.Now boasting 50 caps, he was quoted by Bold as saying, “It was a big motivating factor that I was not involved in the national team earlier in my career, but I am grateful to be part of it now and it makes me proud to play 50 games for my country – now I just hope for 50 more.”If I don’t last five years, then I will be disappointed.”Indeed, while not taking anything for granted, Schmeichel is adamant that thoughts of retirement are far into the future. The goalkeeper, who is in his eighth year with Leicester, is determined to make the most of a period in his career where he is now reaching his peak. After spells with the likes of Darlington and Bury, Schmeichel is grateful for his current status in the game.He added: “You can’t plan in football. Anything can happen. You can get hurt tomorrow and not have the opportunity to come back, so you have to be grateful every time you are teamed up with the national team.”Every match I get in the Parken in front of such an audience, I am incredibly grateful for, because it happens so rarely. We must be proud of all the matches we can fight for the national team.”- updated 21/10 About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

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Dawson Creek to hold public meeting about the future of Rotary Lake

first_imgIn January, Dawson Creek City Council received a report from staff that said it would cost anywhere from $400,000 to $500,000 to convert the lake into a pool, plus the annual cost of operating that could run over $200,000.In a post on Facebook in January, Mayor Dale Bumstead said that council decided to table the motion for consideration at a future date. He explained that the reason the resolution was made is that the City cannot afford up to half a million dollars in upgrades and up to $200,000 in annual costs to operate another pool.The City will make a presentation during the public meeting about the current status of the lake and will take feedback from the public on what to do next with the facility.For more about the public meeting, click here and join the event on Facebook. DAWSON CREEK, B.C. – The City of Dawson Creek will host a public meeting about the future of Rotary Lake later this month.The public meeting will be held on May 28 at the Calvin Kruk Centre for the Arts starting at 7 p.m. The man-made lake at the Mile 0 Park in Dawson Creek has been closed since the death of a 12-year-old girl in 2016.Northern Health order that the lake be closed after the girl’s foot became stuck on a drain at the bottom of the lake. Northern Health has said Rotary Lake’s designation should be changed to that of a pool, meaning it would have to follow much more stringent requirements.last_img read more

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Light rain relieves Delhiites from punishing heat

first_imgNew Delhi: A light bout of rain and windy conditions Friday provided much-needed respite from the scorching dry heat in the national capital, officials said. The weatherman said a number of areas in the city recorded light rainfall accompanied by cool breeze. The city has been witnessing temperatures soaring to mid-40s over the last few days. On Tuesday, Palam recorded a sizzling high of 45.3 degrees Celsius, equalling the record high of April 25, 1970. Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss account details under automatic exchange frameworkOn Friday, the city recorded a high of 39.5 degrees Celsius and a low of 24.8 degrees Celsius. The humidity level oscillated between 37 and 64 per cent. The relative humidity recorded at 8.30 am was 54 per cent. The Met office has predicted partly cloudy skies for Saturday. The maximum and minimum temperatures are likely to hover around 40 and 24 degrees Celsius. On Thursday, the minimum temperature was 25.8 degrees Celsius and the maximum temperature settled at 41 degrees Celsius.last_img read more

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Home Is Where The Hot March Madness Tickets Are

Saturday248.45136.402,825 There are eight cities hosting March Madness games this weekend, but none with ticket sales hotter than Louisville, Ky.; Omaha, Neb.; and Seattle. That’s what happens when NCAA tournament games are basically home games.The demand for tickets there shows how valuable ostensible home games are to ticket sellers, if not to fairness lovers. Kentucky, Kansas and Gonzaga — the first or second highest-ranked teams facing off in the hot-ticket cities — all play their home games less than 300 miles from their tournament host cities. Omaha gets a double dip of local teams, with No. 7 Wichita State playing there as well.To get the list, I used data provided by two online ticket marketplaces, ScoreBig and SeatGeek. Connor Gregoire, a SeatGeek spokesman, sent data based on sales made via the site’s ticket search engine. Alison Burnham, vice president of pricing and analytics for ScoreBig, sent data for tickets available on her site and elsewhere on the secondary market.I compared average prices for top-tier seats, and, separately, for the cheap seats. Also, some sessions are more attractive than others — people would rather go to a weekend session than one during the week, probably both because of the convenience and because weekend sessions tend to feature tighter games. In addition, weeknights beat weekdays, and Fridays beat Thursdays, perhaps because it’s easier to travel without taking two days off work. Since 2011, Friday afternoon sessions have averaged 19 percent higher prices for the best seats, 30 percent higher prices for the cheaper seats and 26 percent more sales on SeatGeek. Check out FiveThirtyEight’s March Madness predictions. Thursday afternoon$131.95$67.802,175 Friday afternoon156.7588.052,740 Thursday evening163.0087.552,235 SESSIONLOWER SEATSUPPER SEATSTICKETS SOLD Sunday233.70130.752,760 So I compared apples to apples: How did Thursday afternoon sessions, for instance, compare to average prices for that session this year?After controlling for variables unrelated to which teams were playing, Louisville was clearly the hottest ticket among the four cities holding Thursday/Saturday sessions. Omaha and Seattle were the Friday/Sunday winners.1Venues sell four types of tickets: For each of the two round-of-64 sessions, for the single round-of-32 session, and for all three sessions combined. In each host city, I looked at ticket demand for each of the four ticket types in three ways: prices of more-expensive seats, prices of cheap seats and volume of ticket sales. That’s 12 points of comparison in all. Louisville and Omaha were above average in 11 of the 12 categories for their sessions. Seattle was above average in every ticket-price category, though below average in three of the four ticket-sale-volume categories. The ScoreBig data, used as a reality check, was similar, with Pittsburgh also making a strong showing.From a last-minute ticket-buyer’s perspective, the main question might be, how much is the least I can pay to get in? To answer that question, SeatGeek sent along daily figures for the ticket at the fifth percentile of listing prices for each session. Even these seats, some of the cheapest available, have stayed expensive for the round-of-64 sessions that feature quasi-home teams in Louisville, Omaha and Seattle. But for other sessions, prices have fallen. For instance, on Wednesday, tickets to the Thursday afternoon session in Louisville — the one that featured four teams not named Kentucky — could be had for just $14. Friday evening186.25107.952,375 read more

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Ohio State baseball to host midweek clash with Cincinnati

OSU junior left fielder Ronnie Dawson lays down a bunt during a game against Morehead State at Bill Davis Stadium on April 13. OSU won 7-3. Credit: Muyao Shen | Assistant Photo EditorFresh off its first Big Ten series victory of the 2016 season over Rutgers last weekend, the Ohio State baseball team (23-12-1, 4-5-0) is set to host the Cincinnati Bearcats (18-19) on Tuesday in a midweek meeting between in-state foes. The two teams faced each other a season ago, when OSU claimed a 6-0 victory behind a strong outing from then-redshirt freshman Adam Niemeyer. OSU coach Greg Beals will try to duplicate that performance by again sending a rookie pitcher to the mound, this time being Ryan Feltner in a controlled start against a to-be-determined Bearcat.   The Scarlet and Gray, who are 14-2 at home this season, will be hoping to continue their dominance over visiting opponents with another win against the Bearcats. Scouting the BearcatsDespite losing three of its last five games, Cincinnati enters Tuesday’s game leading the American Athletic Conference. The Bearcats, however, are visiting with momentum behind them, as they won two of three games against conference foe Tulane over the weekend. Games outside of the Queen City have not been friendly for the Bearcats. In road or neutral contests, they have a combined travel record of 4-15. Cincinnati, statistically, is one of the worst hitting teams in all of Division I. Its team average of .239 ranks 267th of 295 teams. But the Bearcats have been able to produce some big runs courtesy of the long ball. Cincinnati has blasted 25 homers this season, good enough for third in the AAC. The Bearcats are led at the plate by the performance of redshirt sophomore infielder Connor McVey. The Mason, Ohio, native has been clawing away at the baseball with a .301 average, including a team-leading 10 doubles and 21 stolen bases. Cincinnati also has exceptional team speed along the base paths, having swiped 63 of 82 attempted bases to lead its conference. Buckeye bombsThe Buckeyes, in large part, have been powered by two things: controlled pitching and striking the long ball. OSU has already hit a Big Ten-leading 38 home runs, including a team-leading nine from newly converted first baseman Jacob Bosiokovic. The move of Bosiokovic, a redshirt junior, from the outfield has allowed for more versatility in the OSU lineup defensively and is aimed at increasing the production at the plate for the bottom of the lineup. With the lineup switch, senior second baseman L Grant Davis moves into a utility role, senior infielder Troy Kuhn takes over at second, and sophomore Tre’ Gantt takes over for Bosiokovic in right field. In total, OSU has four players with six or more homers, including junior center fielder Troy Montgomery and senior third baseman Nick Sergakis, who both have seven. In four games last week, the pair each tallied two homers, providing OSU with a much-needed spark to an offense that has been cooling down over recent weeks. Exceeding expectations Coming into this season, OSU’s pitching staff had several question marks surrounding the roles in the bullpen. Now, just past the halfway mark of the season, it would be safe to say the Buckeyes’ bullpen has performed well, outside of a disastrous two-blown-save series against Maryland. Redshirt sophomore closer Yianni Pavlopoulos is in a three-way tie for the lead in the Big Ten with eight saves, while relievers Daulton Mosbarger, Seth Kinker and Michael Horejsei all have ERAs south of 2.50. Perhaps most impressively, the Buckeye pitching staff leads the Big Ten with 296 punch-outs. On Tuesday, OSU will have to lean on its bullpen again, as Feltner will be on the hill on short rest after pitching the last three innings during Friday’s 7-4 loss to Rutgers.  The game against Cincinnati is set to begin at 6:35 p.m. read more

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Ohio State quarterback Braxton Miller mum on football future until after Orange

Junior quarterback Braxton Miller (5) carries the ball during the Big Ten Championship game against Michigan State Dec. 7 in Indianapolis. OSU lost, 34-24. Credit: Shelby Lum / Photo editorOhio State junior quarterback Braxton Miller said he is going to wait until after the Buckeyes play in the Orange Bowl against Clemson to decide whether or not he will leave early for the NFL Draft.“I’m just focusing on getting better myself as an individual and getting the team ready and making sure I’m in the film room taking care of my business,” Miller said Wednesday.However, OSU’s signal caller feels he is prepared to play at the next level.“Oh, yeah. Of course, yeah. Definitely. Just like (when) I came from high school. (The) coaches (are) going to get you mentally ready for everything that you need to get ready for,” Miller said. “It’s another step in life.”OSU coach Urban Meyer said he will wait until after the season is complete before talking with players who could leave early about their future. He would not go into detail about what kind of advice he would give his star quarterback when that time comes though.“That’s between me and Braxton,” Meyer said Monday.Miller, who was named the Big Ten’s offensive player of the year for the second straight season Dec. 3, threw for 1,860 yards and 22 touchdowns with just five interceptions despite missing more than two games when he went down with a sprained MCL in his left knee against San Diego State Sept. 7. He also ran for 1,033 yards and 10 touchdowns in 2013.No. 7 OSU (12-1, 8-1) is set to play No. 12 Clemson (10-2, 7-1) in the Discover Orange Bowl Jan. 3. Kickoff is scheduled for 8:30 p.m. read more

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5 plays that mattered – Ohio State versus Michigan

Ohio State freshman running back J.K. Dobbins (2) runs the ball in the third quarter of the game against Michigan on Nov. 25 in Ann Arbor. Ohio State won 31-20. Credit: Jack Westerheide | Photo EditorThe Game lived up to the hype.No. 9 Ohio State (10-2, 8-1 Big Ten) came back from a 14-point deficit Saturday and defeated archrival Michigan (8-4, 5-4 Big Ten) 31-20 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, behind the play of backup quarterback Dwayne Haskins, after J.T. Barrett left with a knee injury in the third quarter.Down the stretch, the Buckeyes made the plays they needed to make to keep their College Football Playoff hopes alive before heading into the Big Ten championship game against No. 5 Wisconsin next week.Here are the five plays that mattered most in Ohio State’s victory against Michigan.Austin Mack third-down catchHaskins likely won’t make a bigger throw this year for Ohio State. After two straight false-start penalties set the Buckeyes back to their own 47-yard line for a third-and-13 play, Haskins delivered a 27-yard strike to sophomore wideout Austin Mack for a first down at the Michigan 26. With 3:06 remaining in the third quarter, the catch gave Ohio State’s offense a much needed jolt, following the departure of Barrett. It was Mack’s only reception of the game. It also resembled a similar grab by Anthony Gonzalez in Michigan Stadium in 2005 that helped Ohio State seal a win.Haskins 22-yard runTwo plays after Mack’s grab, Haskins continued to will the Ohio State offense down the field. With no one open, and a little help on a no-call hold from right guard Demetrius Knox, Haskins stepped up from the pressure and ran 22 yards to the Michigan 1-yard line with 2:01 left in the third quarter.Haskins isn’t the most mobile quarterback in college football, but he made a few plays with his feet that will please the offensive coaching staff. That run paved the way for J.K. Dobbins’ 1-yard go-ahead score on the next play.Dobbins big run for 35 yardsThe freshman running back had just six carries in the first half. His workload increased to nine carries in the second half, and no rush was more significant than a 35-yard run with less than three minutes remaining in the game.Billy Price pulled from his center position and took Michigan linebacker Devin Bush out of the play, opening a hole for Dobbins to get to the next level. The run took Ohio State down to the Michigan 31-yard line and set up the game-sealing touchdown run from redshirt sophomore running back Mike Weber two plays later.Dobbins’ breakaway ability was seen a couple times Saturday, but when the Buckeyes needed a drive to put away the Wolverines, Dobbins promptly answered the call for his signature moment in his first year in the rivalry.Blocked PAT with 7:07 remainingOhio State ended up winning by double digits, but at the time, it seemed this play swung the momentum Ohio State’s way just after allowing a Michigan go-ahead touchdown.Cornerback Denzel Ward came off the left edge of the Michigan line on the point-after attempt and blocked the kick with 7:07 left in the third quarter. Once Ohio State scored on the next drive, Michigan failed to get anything going on offense.After Ward blocked the PAT, Michigan gained just 44 yards combined on its next three drives before Weber put the game out of reach.Jordan Fuller interceptionMichigan quarterback John O’Korn had open receivers for much of the game, but was often inaccurate. With 2:47 remaining in the fourth quarter, O’Korn threw his worst pass of the game, right into the hands of Ohio State safety Jordan Fuller.The intended receiver looked to be wide receiver Kekoa Crawford, but O’Korn threw for a post route while Crawford cut into the field rather than breaking long. Fuller was playing centerfield and hauled in the momentous pick with ease.This was Michigan’s breaking point. Before the drive began, Ohio State kicker Sean Nuernberger missed a field goal that would’ve put the Buckeyes up seven. The Wolverines had their opportunity, but O’Korn’s poor throw put an end to any hope Michigan had at coming back. read more